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Monday, December 26, 2011

LabVIEW™ Database Interfacing For Robotic Control (Computer Project)

Posted by Teter Doll at 9:50 PM 0 Comments


The Zymark™ System is a lab automation workstation that uses the Caliper Life Sciences (Hopkinton, MA) Zymate XP robot. At Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, a Zymate is used in a course, INFO I510 Data Acquisition and Laboratory Automation, to demonstrate the fundamentals of laboratory robotics. This robot has been re-engineered to function with National Instruments™ graphical software program LabVIEW™.
LabVIEW is an excellent tool for robotic control. Based on changing conditions, it is able to dynamically use data from any source to modify the operating parameters of a robot. For dynamically changing information, storage of that information must be readily accessible. For example, there is a need to continuously store and update the calibration data of the robot, populate the setting of each axis and positioning inside the workplace, and also store robot positioning information. This can be achieved by using a database which allows for robotic control data to be easily searched and accessed.
To address this need, an interface was developed which would allow full, dynamic communication between any LabVIEW program (called “virtual instruments,” or VIs) and the database. This has been accomplished by developing a set of subVIs that can be dropped into the calling robotic control VIs. With these subVIs, a user has the ability to create table and column information, delete a table, retrieve table information by clicking a particular table name on the user interface, or query using any SQL-specific combination of columns or tables within the database. For robot functionality, subVIs were created to store and retrieve data such as calibration data points and regression calculations.
Source: Purdue University
Author: Gebregziabher, Netsanet

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Remote Control Circuits

Posted by Teter Doll at 9:31 PM 0 Comments

abstract:

Here is a circuit of a remote control unit which makes use of the radio frequency signals to control various electrical appliances. This remote control unit has 4 channels which can be easily extended to 12. This circuit differs from similar circuits in view of its simplicity and a totally different concept of generating the control signals. Usually remote control circuits make use of infrared light to transmit control signals. Their use is thus limited to a very confined area and line-of-sight.
This circuit makes use of radio frequency to transmit the control signals and hence it can be used for control from almost anywhere in the house. Here DTMF (dual-tone multi frequency) signals (used in telephones to dial the digits) are used as the control codes. The DTMF tones are used for frequency modulation of the carrier. At the receiver unit, these frequency modulated signals are intercepted to obtain DTMF tones at the speaker terminals. This DTMF signal is connected to a DTMF-to-BCD converter whose BCD output is used to switch-on and switch-off various electrical applicances (4 in this case). The remote control transmitter consists of DTMF generator and an FM transmitter circuit.
For generating the DTMF frequencies, a dedicated IC UM91214B (which is used as a dialler IC in telephone instruments) is used here. This IC requires 3 volts for its operation. This is provided by a simple zener diode voltage regulator which converts 9 volts into 3 volts for use by this IC. For its time base, it requires a quartz crystal of 3.58 MHz which is easily available from electronic component shops. Pins 1 and 2 are used as chip select and DTMF mode select pins respectively. When the row and column pins (12 and 15) are shorted to each other, DTMF tones corresponding to digit 1 are output from its pin 7. Similarly, pins 13, 16 and 17 are additionally required to dial digits 2, 4 and 8. Rest of the pins of this IC may be left as how they are. The output of IC1 is given to the input of this transmitter circuit which effectively frequency modulates the carrier and transmits it in the air. The carrier frequency is determined by coil L1 and trimmer capacitor VC1 (which may be adjusted for around 100MHz operation). An antenna of 10 to 15 cms (4 to 6 inches) length will be sufficient to provide adequate range. The antenna is also necessary because the transmitter unit has to be housed in a metallic cabinet to protect the frequency drift caused due to stray EM fields.
Four key switches (DPST push-to-on spring loaded) are required to transmit the desired DTMF tones. The switches when pressed generate the specific tone pairs as well as provide power to the transmitter circuit simultaneously. This way when the transmitter unit is not in use it consumes no power at all and the battery lasts much longer. The receiver unit contains an FM receiver (these days simple and inexpensive FM kits are readily available in the market which work exceptionally well), a DTMF-to-BCD converter and a flip-flop toggling latch section.
The frequency modulated DTMF signals are received by the FM receiver and the output (DTMF tones) are fed to the dedicated IC KT3170 which is a DTMF-to-BCD converter. This IC when fed with the DTMF tones gives corresponding BCD output; for example, when digit 1 is pressed, the output is 0001 and when digit 4 is pressed the output is 0100. This IC also requires a 3.58MHz crystal for its operation. The tone input is connected to its pin 2 and the BCD outputs are taken from pins 11 to 14 respectively. These outputs are fed to 4 individual D flip-flop latches which have been converted into toggle flip-flops built around two CD4013B ICs.
Whenever a digit is pressed, the receiver decodes it and gives a clock pulse which is used to toggle the corresponding flip-flop to the alternate state. The flip-flop output is used to drive a relay which in turn can latch or unlatch any electrical appliance. We can upgrade the circuit to control as many as 12 channels since IC UM91214B can generates 12 DTMF tones. For this purpose some modification has to be done in receiver unit and also in between IC2 and toggle flip-flop section in the receiver. A 4-to-16 lines demultiplexer (IC 74154) has to be used and the number of toggle flip-flops have also to be increased to 12 from the existing 4.

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Blood Pressure Monitor Block Diagram and Design Considerations

Posted by Teter Doll at 9:28 PM 0 Comments

Design Considerations:
Blood pressure monitors can use Korotkoff, Oscillometry, or Pulse Transit Time methods to measure blood pressure. They employ a pressure cuff, pump, and transducer to measure the blood pressure and heart rate in three phases: Inflation, Measurement, and Deflation. They include an LCD, memory recall, selection buttons, power management, and USB interface.
The pressure transducer produces the output voltage proportional to the applied differential input pressure. The output voltages of the pressure transducer range from 0 to 40 mV, which needs to be amplified so that the output voltage of the DC amplifier has a range from 0 to 5V. This is why, we need a high-gain amplifier. Then the signal from the DC amplifier will be passed on to the band-pass filter. The DC amplifier amplifies both DC and AC component of the signal. The filter is designed to have large gain at around 1-4 Hz and attenuate any signal that is out of the pass band. The AC component from filter is important for determining when to capture the systolic/diastolic pressures and heart rate of the patient. The final stage of the front end is an AC coupling stage, after which the signal is sent to analog to digital converters, and digitized.
The digital measurements of pressure and heart rate are performed by the microprocessor. Measurements results are stored in EEPROM or FLASH memory as a data log that can be uploaded to a PC via USB. The analog circuit is used to amplify both the DC and AC components of the output signal of pressure transducer so that we can use the MCU to process the signal and obtain useful information about the patient’s health.
Block Diagram:

Source: Texas Instruments
Download Useful Technical Documents:

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Embedded Internet for Pulse Oximeters

Posted by Thirumalai Kumar at 9:23 PM 0 Comments
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In recent years there has been many investigations into sleeping disorders. Many studies are carried out in specially equipped units in which a patient is monitored whilst sleeping. Measurements that are taken are in the form of ECG, EMG, EEG, nasal airflow, and abdominal movement. Pulse oximetry data is also recorded during the night. Pulse oximetry is the measurement of pulse rate and oxygen saturation of blood. Along with other measurements pulse oximetry data is used in the diagnosis of sleeping disorders. Recent studies have shown that diagnosis of sleeping disorders is better suited to a location of familiarity rather than a hospital situation. Amongst others, this is one of the many reasons that remote monitoring of medical equipment, such as the pulse oximeter, is a forward step in sleep medicine.
In building an “embedded internet for pulse oximeters” a door is opened on the possibility of remote monitoring via the Internet. This solution needs to be inexpensive relative to the cost of a pulse oximeter and the system needs to be robust as it will be portable. Ease of use is yet another major factor when designing such a system. Simplifying the operation of the device allows for less technical operators to adequately use the equipment to full potential. The proposed system named Oximeter Internet Interface or oi^2, is a web server connected via RS-232 serial interface to a pulse oximeter. The oxinet is able to serve pulse and SpO2 data as well as trend information to the Internet. The medical staff can download trend data and view real time streaming data from any web browser. This is accomplished through the language of the Internet, HTML and java applets. The design of an Internet based solution can be broken down into two major components, these being the server side and the client side. The server side includes the control and data acquisition from the pulse oximeter and serving this information up to the Internet. The client side includes the retrieval of information from the Internet and displaying that information in a human readable form.
An Internet solution such as this is not a comprehensive finished product but more of a stepping-stone to a fully functional system. The oxinet has been demonstrated at the Mater Children’s Hospital as a proof of concept. The idea was widely supported by staff and this led to more in depth analysis of the feasibility of such a device. It can be concluded that this proof of concept can be extended to a commercially viable product.
Author: Matthew Roy Burey
Source: The University of Queensland

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Sliding mode control of robotic finger and control of SMA

Posted by Thirumalai Kumar at 9:22 PM 0 Comments


This thesis is focused on the control and modeling of a robots finger. The control target of this project is position tracking during the finger motion. A new sliding mode control algorithm is developed in this project. It originates from the author’s 3-stages approach. i.e. the reaching phase, the sliding mode and the steady state. This approach is mainly based on two key idea, as follows: (i) During the reaching phase, the speed of reaching can be related to the distance between the state trajectory and the switching manifold, (ii) During the sliding motion, the state velocity is directly related to the state variable for 2nd-order non linear systems.
This new control algorithm is a functional relationship for the speed of reaching during the reaching phase. The simulation result demonstrates that this algorithm performs better than Gao and Hung’s “power rate” reaching law both in chattering reduction and reaching time. The above robot finger is developed via the transition from a biological model for the human thumb to a mechanical prototype. A main concern of the biological model is the relationships on the excursion of finger tendons. The newly developed relationships in this project involves the shape and size of the associated phalanx, as well as the pulley mechanism besides the angle of rotation. The treatment of these relationships in this thesis are more complete and applicable than the approach by Landsmeer. Landsmeer’s model involves only the angle of rotation.
Moreover, the mechanical prototype developed in this project retains anthropomorphic features of the human thumb. Such features include the quad-circles at the ends of each piece, and the very low friction in motion via artificial tendons. These properties are unique in the above robot finger compared to the work on robot hands by other research groups. In addition, SMA-wires are used as actuator for the above robot finger. A major problem of the SMA material is the “residue” stress. This is a defect since it prevents the wire from returning to the same position before re-activation in the next cycle. Hence a new approach: the “interval insertion” method has been developed in this project. Implementations show that this method really solves the above stated problem.
Author: Loh, Albert Ming
Source: City University of Hong Kong

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Novel Application of Diffractive Optical Elements in Optical Systems

Posted by Thirumalai Kumar at 9:18 PM 0 Comments

Dammann proposed the special type of diffraction grating which is periodic in nature together with binary phase for achieving a high splitting ratio. Later on, researchers proposed different kinds of methods for improving the performances. Dammann Gratings can be used in many areas, and in this project, we aim to expand the potential applications of employing Dammann Grating, specifically in the areas of optical communications and optical measurements.
Firstly, Fiber-to-the-Home (FTTH) is a residential communication system in which fiber goes though the user’s home. FTTH can provide much more bandwidth than Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) which is one of the existing common broadband technologies. In addition, this network has the ability to provide all-round services and to become more feasible. Dammann Grating is then one of the suitable candidates in optical fiber communication. The proposed scheme using Diffractive Optical Elements (DOE) will have great potential for fiber-to-home network when compared with other techniques such as fused fiber couplers, waveguide splitter and micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) which are all affected by high PDL and uniformity loss. In this project, we would discuss the optical beam splitter performance in both 1D and 2D packaged silica and POF fiber arrays.
Secondly, the Circular Dammann Grating (CDG) is a diffraction grating which produces circular beams in ring-shape at the image plane. Zhou, Zhao and Chung proposed different techniques. However, there are pros and cons. In this thesis, we present and analyze other novel approaches based on the concept of circular rotation, Hankel transform and non-zero order binary annulus mask of the nth order diffraction spots to achieve the same objectives as mentioned above with better results.
We have explored the feasibility study of employing CDG for measuring the angle of an object. Both theoretical and experimental results show that it agrees well with the calculation. Through the Charged Coupled Device (CCD) camera, the diameter of the major axis in tilted CDG can be measured. The accuracy is being governed by the focal length of converging lens and the period of grating. Generally speaking, this design could be applied in micro-systems with the benefit of easy and robust configuration.
To conclude, we demonstrated the feasibility studies of applying Dammann Grating into PON splitter and optical measurement both theoretically and experimentally. We believe that this grating could be widely contributed in many areas.
Source: City University of Hong Kong
Download Abstract – Novel Application of Diffractive Optical Elements

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Low Cost Wind Power Plant Project

Posted by Teter Doll at 7:52 PM 0 Comments
INRODUCTION:
Energy is an important part of any country’s economy. Today major energy need in a country is achieved by using conventional sources of energy. It includes coal, natural gas, nuclear fuel, etc. But these sources are limited on earth. Looking towards the environment effect as thermal plant releases smoke and ash which causes air pollution Nuclear power plant releases radioactive waste which are hazardous and cause air and land pollution. Due to these factor we concern our idea toward non conventional sources of energy. Non –conventional sources of energy are environmental friendly, easily available on earth .
Wind energy has evolved as one of the non conventional sources of energy . It is an indirect form of solar energy. Wind power plant extract energy from wind and convert it into mechanical energy which is used by turbine to convert it into electrical energy.
Cause of wind flow:
Due to non uniform heating of land and water by solar energy, air nearer to equator heats up quickly , these hot air tend to move upward because of less density ,The air vacancy created is filled by cold air coming from poles . Air carrying momentum is known as wind. Turbine blades as barrier which extract power from wind.
Advantages of wind energy
  • Wind energy is available in the country situated on bank of the sea.
  • Wind power plant does not require any additional source of energy for power generation.
  • It is pollution free and eco-friendly.
  • Both type of plant large scale and small scale can be constructed.
Download Full Report: Low Cost Wind Power Plant Project

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Radio frequency based remote industrial appliances control system

Posted by Teter Doll at 7:34 PM 0 Comments
Block diagram


Abstract



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Wireless music transmission and reception by IR communication

Posted by Teter Doll at 7:34 PM 0 Comments
Transmittor

Receiver



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BRAZING CLIP ASSEMBLY MACHINE USING PLC (SPECIAL PURPOSE MACHINE)

Posted by Teter Doll at 7:33 PM 0 Comments
Abstract
As we have known about the importance of time management especially in transportation, we are in need of using two-wheelers or four wheelers enormously. But assembling these vehicles the part of the electro-magnetic power is inevitable. Similarly the assembling of wire is also very important. For this purpose in a familiar company like LUCAS-TVS PVT Ltd. They are using “BRAZING CLIP ASSEMBLY (Special Purpose Machine) as in small designs for erecting the commutator with copper wire. The main function is to clip or hold the commutator and copper winding in commercial starter. The use of brazing clip assembly machine is to save Rs1crore per Annam and this machine produce 32products per minute.
But let it be our basic project to know, how this assembly is made. The design of this project is our project is our basic view. So we have decided to design this project with PLC
Introduction
As we have known about the importance of time management especially in transportation, we are in need of using two-wheelers or four wheelers enormously.But assembling this vehicles the part of the electro-magnetic power is inevitable. Similarly the assembling of wire is also  very important. For this purpose in a familiar company like LUCAS-TVS PVT Ltd. They are using “BRAZING CLIP ASSEMBLY(Special Purpose Machine) as in small designs for erecting the commutator with copper wire. The main functions is to clip or hold the commutator and copper winding in commercial starter. The uses of brazing clip assembly machine is to save Rs1crore per Annam and this machine produce 32products per minute.But let it be our basic project to know, how this assembly is made. The design of this project is our project is our basic view. So we have decided to design this project with PLC along with K.P ENGINEERS , the block diagram of this machine is attached here..
It is special purpose machine by using Allen Bradley plc. This is used to manufacture the clip, which is used in starter of four wheelers. The purpose of the clip is to join the copper winding and commutator in inside the starter. For this machine we designed electrical panel board by using plc, relay board, smps, mcb, transformer, pneumatic cylinder, solenoid coils, push button etc… this machine consists of four pneumatic cylinders. They are Top cylinder, Bottom cylinder, Hold cylinder, Feeder cylinder. The bottom cylinder has three proximity sensors i) Top cylinder top sensor, ii) Top cylinder middle sensor, iii) Top cylinder bottom sensor. The bottom cylinder has one proximity sensor as well as hold cylinder and feeder cylinder has each separate proximity sensor. Photo guard is attached in this machine, its for safety purpose when the photo guards detects some interrupts it will stop the machine completely. This machine can be run in two modes they are auto mode and manual mode. In manual mode the operator can control this machine through the operator panel.
Presentation ppt

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AUTOMATED ATTENDANCE SYSTEM PROJECT FREE DOWNLOAD

Posted by Teter Doll at 7:31 PM 0 Comments
ABSTRACT
‘AUTOMATED ATTENDANCE SYSTEM ’ is designed to collect and manage student’s attendance records from RFID devices installed in a class rooms. Based on the verification of student identification at the entrances system, the RFID tag can be embedded in the ID card of the individual. First to activate a new session(hour)  the teacher swipes her RFID tag this marks a new attendance session during which the students can swipe once to increment their attendance. The RFID module operate in 125Khz range, when a tag passes through its vicinity, the module senses its presence and extracts its unique serial number and passes this code into microcontroller which matches the code to the correct person and increments the attendance of the particular person.
CONTENTS
1.Introduction
2.Block Diagram and Description
3.Circuit
-Circuit  Diagram
-Circuit Description
4.Software
5.Printed Circuit Board
-PCB Layout
6.Estimate
7.Conclusion
8.Bibpiography
INTRODUCTION
The two major problems faced by organizations are time consuming manual attendance and wastage of electrical power. Our project is going to solve these problems by using RFID technology. The project is designed to store up to 50 card IDs but it is easily scalable up to 65000 card IDs but for that it requires external memory. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is an automatic identification method, relying on storing and remotely retrieving data using devices called RFID tags or transponders. So the RFID is a wireless identification.
Normally the RFID system comprises of two main parts: RFID Reader and RFID Tag. RFID Reader is an integrated or passive network which is used to interrogate information from RFID tag. The RFID Reader may consist of antenna, filters, modulator, demodulator, coupler and a micro processor.
AUTOMATED ATTENDANCE SYSTEM
COMPONENTS OF SYSTEM
The figure below shows the basic block diagram of the AUTOMATED ATTENDANCE USING RFID. It contains the following blocks:
1. RFID reader
2. RFID tags
3. LCD display
4. Microcontroller
5.MAX232
6. Power supply unit
RFID READER
 A reader (now more typically referred to as an RFID interrogator) is basically a radio frequency (RF) transmitter and receiver, controlled by a microprocessor or digital signal processor. The reader, using an attached antenna, captures data from tags, then passes the data to the controller for processing. The reader decodes the data encoded in the tags integrated circuit (silicon chip) and the data is passed to the microcontroller for processing.
RFID TAGS
 Tags also sometimes are called “transponders”. RFID tags can come in many forms and sizes. Some can be as small as a grain of rice. Data is stored in the IC and transmitted through. The antenna to a reader. The two commonly used RFID Transponders are Active (that do contain an internal battery power source that powers the tags chip) and Passive (that do not have an internal power source, but are externally powered typical from the reader) RFID Transponders.
LCD DISPLAY
 The display support 2X16 characters, which means, the LCD can support 2 lines on the display and each line can display up to 16 characters which is relevant as the only essential output to be displayed is the student’s name and ID. Besides LCD Display, the output is displayed on LCD. The diagram of LCD display is shown in Figure and the detailed connections of the LCD is shown in table.
MICROCONTROLLER
The microcontroller used is PIC 16F877A. Microcontroller is a general-purpose device, but one that is meeting to read performs limited calculations on data, and contained is its environ based on these calculations. The prime use, of Microcontroller is to control the operation of a machine using a fixed program that is stored in and does not change over the lifetime of the system.
MAX232
The MAX232 is an integrated circuit that converts signals from an RS-232 serial port to signals suitable for use in TTL compatible digital logic circuits. The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver and typically converts the RX, TX, CTS and RTS signals.

POWER SUPPLY

These form an important equipment of any Electronics laboratory. Power supplies are essential for the testing and implementation of any useful electronic circuit. If power supplies are not available then the only way to provide power to a circuit is the battery. For long-term use and frequent manipulation these are not feasible. More over these are not as flexible as modern day power supplies. They do not provide for overload protection and thermal protection.
circuit diagaram
CIRCUIT  DIAGRAM  DESCRIPTION
The circuit below shows the AUTOMATED ATTENDANCE USING RFID. It contains
1. RFID reader
2. RFID tags
3. LCD display
4. Microcontroller
5.MAX232
6. Power supply unit
CONCLUSION
This project is based on microcontrollers. As this is based on AT89S51 which is a commonly used microcontroller, the control and programming is quite easy. This is just a humble effort to produce a prototype for a device which helps in keeping an exact record of student attendance using RFIDs module. Using this device, we can easily detect the difference in power withdrawal of RFID tags and it is user friendly. This system can be easily installed any location where a 220 v power supply is available.
          Our project has been a humble effort to produce a prototype for a device which helps in keeping an exact record of student attendance using RFIDs module , and we believe our device will find use in various day to day fields.

      Report
 

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MOBILE AIDED SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM

Posted by Teter Doll at 7:28 PM 0 Comments
ABSTRACT
MOBILE AIDED SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (MASS) is a mobile phone controlled mini robot based on 3G technology. The robot has an integrated 3G mobile phone with video camera which enables it to be used as an advanced video surveillance system. Surveillance is the monitoring of the behaviour, activities, or other changing information, usually of people. It most usually refers to observation of individuals or groups by government organizations.
The word surveillance may be applied to observation from a distance by means of electronic equipment, or interception of electronically transmitted information. The MASS can be manually controlled from any location in the world by making a call to the mobile phone attached to the robot. Real-time surveillance is possible with the help of high speed 3G technology. A highly secured system can be developed from the MASS by including an encrypt data transmission network.
The robot can be easily charged with the help of a charging port provided in the robot. Due to its low power consumption and high efficient batteries, the robot can be operated continuously for long hours. MASS can also be used as an auto navigation device. For surveillance with the help of auto navigation the robot should be placed in a predetermined closed track. The robot will continue in the auto navigation mode until the user intervenes.
The robot is very useful to governments and law enforcement to maintain social control, recognize and monitor threats, and prevent or investigate criminal activity. We have made the system such that it is easily modifiable to suite various requirements. Being cost effective and user friendly, its application will be wide.
FEATURES
  • Cost effective and high reliability
  • Auto navigation
  • Consume very little power
  • User friendly
  • Easy to modify
  • Can be used in variety of applications
  • Easy to implement
  • Eliminates the need for a full time attendant
APPLICATIONS
 Some of the applications where the system is applicable are listed below  
  •  Home Security
  •  Port/Harbour/Airport Security Monitoring
  •  Analog/IP Video Surveillance Transmission
  •  Military Installation Perimeter Security
  •  Public Safety Networks/Monitoring
  •  Power Plant Security/Surveillance
  •  Utility, Pipeline, Railroad Security CCTV
  •  Construction/Industrial Plant CCTV Monitoring
  •  Rescue Operations



MOBILE PHONE AIDED SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM -BLOCK DIAGRAM

 DOWNLOAD FULL REPORT OF THE SYSTEM BELOW 




DOWNLOAD

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TRANSFORMER PROTECTION USING NUMERICAL RELAY

Posted by Teter Doll at 7:24 PM 0 Comments
INTRODUCTION
The aim of this project is to analyze and upgrade existing transformer protection system in BPCL Kochi Refinery. Transformers are static devices totally enclosed and generally oil immersed. Therefore, chances of faults occurring on them are very rare.” However the consequences of even a rare fault may be very serious unless the transformer is quickly disconnected from the system. This necessitates providing adequate automatic protection for transformer against possible faults.
Small distribution transformers are usually connected to the supply system through series fuses instead of circuit breakers. Consequently, no automatic protective relay equipment is required. However, the probability of faults on power transformers is undoubtedly more and hence protection is absolutely necessary.
The transformer is major and very important equipment in power system. It requires highly reliable protective devices. The protective scheme depends on the size of the transformer. The rating of transformers used in transmission and distribution system range from a few kVA to several hundred MVA . For small transformers of medium size over current relays are used. For large transformers differential protection is recommended.

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We analyzed and studied the existing transformer protection relays used in BPCL. [There different types of protection employ different types of relays.
With the technological advances being made in generation protection section, the [generator protection using new methods have gathered momentum. Here we have studied about functioning of transformer protection using numerical relays.

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TOUCH ME NOT – For Playing Games-ECE Project

Posted by Teter Doll at 7:22 PM 0 Comments
ABSTRACT
Everyone likes to enjoy their free time in a more effective way. It would be more interesting and joyful if we spend the time in playing games, solving puzzles etc. Touch me not is an interesting project that allows the user to upgrade his concentration and a relief providing game.
This project is mainly designed as Events to be conducted at Exhibitions, Fetes etc. This project seems to be easy but it includes different interfacings with the microcontroller. This project uses 89C51 microcontroller. Seven segment displays are provided in this project for the display of various parameters like chances, time etc.
In this project, the user will be provided with a maximum of five chances and a time limit up to 180 seconds to play the game. The operator sets the chances and time using switches. LEDs are used in this project to indicate the number of chances selected.
Three switches are used to set the chances, time and start the game. Seven segment displays are used to display the numbers i.e., chances, entered time and current time. Once the chances and time are set, the operator presses the enter switch to start the game. Once the game is started, the time starts decreasing and the user has to play the game within the given time. The game is to move the iron rod from one end of the rope to the other end without touching the rope. If the rod touches the rope, the chances will be decremented by one and the game continues until the time is completed or the chances are equal to zero.
TOUCH ME NOT-BLOCK DIAGRAM
After the game is completed, the operator can press the enter switch once again for the next participant to play the game with the same settings i.e.; time and chance values set previously or can press the reset switch to start with the new settings.
This project uses regulated 5V, 500mA power supply. 7805 three terminal voltage regulator is used for voltage regulation. Bridge type full wave rectifier is used to rectify the ac out put of secondary of 230/12V step down transformer.

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RAILWAY TRACK TRACER PROJECT FREE DOWNLOAD

Posted by Teter Doll at 7:19 PM 2 Comments
INTRODUCTION
In history of railways , almost 90% of the accidents happens because of two reasons:
  • Train comes away from track
  • Track discontinuity
TRAIN COMES AWAY FROM TRACK
It means that track is not all problems but train moves out of track. This happens because Of lack of concentration of the people who works with track.  For example when the nuts and bolts get loosed these sorts of problems will occur, where property loss will happen to both public and railways but not that much as the second case.  
TRACK DISCONTINUITY
i) This happens because of terrorism attack, natural disaster. There will be damage to track which causes severe damage to both public and railways which in many cases have led to several deaths.
ü) By keeping such issues in mind, we have come up with an idea to detect the track discontinuity very sooner before the train reaches the accident zone.
OBJECTIVE
Our project “railway track tracer” automatically traces the track discontinuity several kilometers ahead and alarms near by station and the Train about the track discontinuity.
ABSTRACT
  • In our project, we use series of sensors which senses the continuity of the track by sensing the vibration in the track.
  •  When a train passes its vibration in track it travels with very great velocity than the train velocity so that it can be detected several kilometers ahead before the train.
METHODOLOGY
Overview
In our project we use a series of sensors which detect the vibrations from the track. The output of the sensors are fed to the switching and rectifying circuit which processes the sensed signal ready to feed for the microcontroller. The processed signals are first fed to the opto couplers, output of which is fed to the microcontroller. The microcontroller decides from the received signal about the track discontinuity, and when a discontinuity is found in the track.
Block diagram for Railway track tracer
Block 1: Series of Sensors
We place the sensors at regular intervals in the track which senses the vibrations in the track when a train arrives. When a train moves with greater velocity the vibrations are experienced in the track for few kilometers ahead. The sensors capture these vibrations and pass them for processing.
Block 2: Switching and the Rectifying circuit
Every single sensor output is fed to a switching and rectifying circuit to determine the strength of vibration from the sensor and to process it to be suitable for the next level. Every switching circuit and the sensor pair is considered as a set (S1, S2, S3 and so on). Every set is connected to the microcontroller with suitable processing.
Block 3: Couplers
The couplers are the bridge between microcontroller and the switching circuit which prevents the microcontroller getting damaged from the high voltages.
Block 4: Microcontrollers
We use series of the microcontrollers to decide the defect area and the defect in the track.
Every slave microcontrollers (M1, M2, M3 and so on) are connected directly to the output of the few sets (S1, S2, S3) and the masters are connected to many slave microcontrollers. The slave micro controller decides the defect from processed signal. And the master controller detects the exact location of the defect area.
Block 5: Alarm signal
When a defect is detected the master signal is generated from the master controller which is connected to a necessary alarm device to warn the control room of the railways or the near by station or the train itself.

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BRAZING CLIP ASSEMBLY MACHINE USING PLC (SPECIAL PURPOSE MACHINE)-EEE Final year Project

Posted by Teter Doll at 7:17 PM 0 Comments
ABSTRACT      
It is special purpose machine by using Allen Bradley plc. This is used to manufacture the clip, which is used in starter of four wheelers. The purpose of the clip is to join the copper winding and commutator In inside the starter.
For this machine we designed electrical panel board by using plc, relay board, smps, mcb, transformer, pneumatic cylinder, solenoid coils, pushbutton etc…
This machine consists of four pneumatic cylinders. They are Top cylinder, Bottom cylinder, Hold cylinder, Feeder cylinder. The bottom cylinder has three proximity sensors i) Top cylinder top sensor, ii) Top cylinder middle sensor, iii) Top cylinder bottom sensor. The bottom cylinder has one proximity sensor as well as hold cylinder and feeder cylinder has each separate proximity sensor. Photo guard is attached in this machine, its for safety purpose when the photo guards detects some interrupts it will stop the machine completely.
This machine can be run in two modes they are auto mode and manual mode. In manual mode the operator can control this machine through the operator panel.
Introduction
As we have known about the importance of time management especially in transportation, we are in need of using two-wheelers or four wheelers enormously. But assembling these vehicles the part of the electro-magnetic power is inevitable. Similarly the assembling of wire is also very important. For this purpose in a familiar company like LUCAS-TVS PVT Ltd. They are using “BRAZING CLIP ASSEMBLY (Special Purpose Machine) as in small designs for erecting the commutator with copper wire. The main function is to clip or hold the commutator and copper winding in commercial starter. The use of brazing clip assembly machine is to save Rs1crore per annum and this machine produce 32products per minute.
But let it be our basic project to know, how this assembly is made. The design of this project is our project is our basic view. So we have decided to design this project with PLC along with K.P ENGINEERS.
ALLEN BRADLEY PLC
OPERATION
This machine can be operated by two manners, they are
i)   Auto mode
ii)  Manual mode
AUTOMODE
              In this mode all pneumatic  cylinders are controlled and operated  by automatic process. When  we switched ON automode , the machine will check top cylinder top sensor switch, bottom cylinder sensor, hold cylinder sensor,  feeder cylinder sensor  and also photo guard are energized. If every sensors are energized, the machine will go to cycle ready. The cycle ready is indication, to show the machine is in ready condition to start. When we get cycle ready signal, We can start machine production by cycle start switch. After switched on cycle start, the top cylinder will move in forward condition, so that time, the top cylinder middle sensor will sensed, and this sensor energize the hold cylinder. The hold cylinder start to move forward, the sensor connected with hold cylinder will energize, it starts the feeder cylinder to move forward, after feeder cylinder sensor energized. The bottom cylinder will move towards forward direction, when it reaches the bottom cylinder sensor and it will start bottom reverse timer,  after finishing of  timer, the bottom cylinder will come back to its rest position. i.e It will move into reverse direction and come back to its original position, similarly when reverse direction of bottom cylinder started, it will start  top cylinder reverse timer, after finishing of delay, forward cylinder also act into reverse direction and it back to its rest position.  This process will continue in automode upto when automode is stopped or some interrupts occur in machine.
MANUAL MODE
In this mode the machine is totally controlled by operator through operator panel. After putting the machine in manual mode, we can push top cylinder push button, so the forward cylinder will move towards forward direction, when the forward cylinder moves forward direction it will start timer, this timer is used as inter locking, after finished of time delay only, the reverse operation of top cylinder will work. Like as , we can push bottom cylinder push button, so the bottom cylinder will move towards forward direction, when the bottom cylinder moves forward direction it will start timer, this timer is used as inter locking, after finished of time delay only, the reverse operation of bottom cylinder will work. When we press hold cylinder push button it moves forward and also reverse direction, feeder also as a same operation when we press feeder cylinder push button it moves forward and also reverse… the above all operation operated through plc program.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION
Block Diagram
The connection diagram of this panel board is explained as per the block diagram. Now we are going to explain about that block diagram connection in detailed view. The main power is connected to power terminal block, the output of the power terminal block is connected to the circuit breaker. The circuit breaker is used as a safety device. The circuit breaker output is connected to the transformer. The transformer we used is a mutual inductance transformer. We used transformer here, to get an constant supply to smps. The smps received power from transformer, and it converts 230ac voltage into regulated 24v dc. The dc supply is again controlled by mcb and its given to all device which are used in this panel. The plc is powered on by smps output. The input to plc, received from operator panel and proximity sensors. All inputs are 24v only, and the inputs are given to plc through input terminal blocks. The output of the plc is afil and the pneumatic cylinder is controlled by solenoid coil.


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MECHANICAL AND PRODUCTION ENGINEERING PROJECT TOPICS

Posted by Teter Doll at 7:10 PM 1 Comment

  1. AUTOMATIC BOTTLE FILLING MACHINE
  2.  WHEEL CHAIR WITH STREACHER MODEL FOR PATIENT
  3. TRIANGULAR DRILLING MACHINE
  4. SOLAR TUNNEL DRYER FOR DRYING COCONUTS
  5. SOLAR OPERATED MOTORIZED RECIPOCATING PUMP
  6. PEDAL WATER PUMPING SYSTEM
  7. MINIMUM QUANTITY LUBRICANT DISPENSER UNIT
  8. HAND OPERATED BEARING PULLER
  9. GROUND DRILLER FOR PLANTING
  10. FABRICATION OF WHEAT MIXTURE
  11. FABRICATION OF POWER ROTARY WINDER
  12. ELECTRONIC VICE
  13. AUTOMATIC MASS WEIGHING MACHINE
  14. AUTOMATIC CORE CUTTING MACHINE
  15. PNEUMATIC TAPPING ARM
  16. MORTISING MACHINE
  17. MOBILE BASE FOR ALL MACHINERIES
  18. CUT A CIRCLE ON A TABLE SAW
  19. BUCKET WHEEL EXCAVATOR
  20. BAGGAGE SORTER FOR INDUSTRIES
  21. HAND OPERATED CAN CRUSHER
  22. KINEMATIC WORM
  23. ELECTRIC ALUMINUM CAN CRUSHER
  24. MECHANICAL CAN CRUHER
  25. KINEMATIC WALKER CPM
  26. PEDAL POWER HACKSAW
  27. ZERO GRAVITY RECLINER
  28. AUTOMATIC CHICKEN FEEDER
  29. COIN COUNTER
  30. STEAM PAINT REMOVEL
  31. HOLO 3CYCLE
  32. GLASS CRUSHING MACHINE
  33. ROTOMOULDING MACHINE
  34. ESCALATOR COMPATIBLE WHEEL CHAIR (PROTO TYPE ONLY)
  35. FOUR LEGGED WALKING ROBOT
  36. FIRE TRUCK AND LADDER MECHANISM
  37. MECHANICAL ROTI MAKER
  38. PORTABLE SAW MILL
  39. SCRAP COLLECTOR
  40. AUTOMATIC STAMPING MACHINE
  41. MECHANICAL RECLINER FOR AGED PEOPLES
  42. MULLER MACHINE
  43. FABRICATION OF AUTOMATIC CONE WINDING MACHINE
  44. MINI WATER DOCTOR WITH TEMPERATURE AUTO CUTOFF
  45. HUMIDIFIER WITH HIGH EFFICENT DUCT USING DOUBLE BLOWER
  46.  HUMIDIFIER WITH HIGH EFFICENT DUCT USING SINGLE BLOWER
  47. AUTOMATIC DIMENSIONING MACHINE
  48. FABRICATION OF GEAR TYPE INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE
  49. AUTOMATIC ACRYLIC SHEET BENDING MACHINE (HEATER CONTROL)
  50. FOCUSING LIGHT TRACKING MECHANISM
  51. FABRICATION OF VARIABLE SPEED GEAR BOX
  52. MOTORIZED WHEEL CHAIR FOR PHYSICALLY DISABLED WITH LIFTING MODEL
  53. FABRICATION OF FLY PRESS
  54. THERMOCOAL CUTTING MACHINE USING CNC
  55. AUTOMATIC BLANKING MACHINE
  56. FABRICATION OF ARBOR PRESS
  57. FABRICATION OF AUTOMATIC EMBOSSING AND DRILLING MACHINE
  58. UNIVERSAL TOOL GRINDING MACHINE
  59. FABRICATION OF LEVER OPERATED CONCICAL BENDING ROLLER MACHINE
  60. CYLINDER BLOCK BORING MACHINE
  61. FABICATION OF ANGULAR SHEET METAL BENDING MACHINE
  62. CIRCULAR CUTTING MACHINE
  63. FABRICATION OF DRILLING MACHINE WITH VARIABLE SPEED DRIVE IN SCREW METHOD
  64. AUTOMATIC STORE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
  65. AUTOMATIC FLOOR POLISHING MACHINE
  66. FABRICATION OF TILTABLE EXTENSION LADDER
  67. FABRICATION OF BOTTLE COOLER
  68. PEDALING PUMP
  69. AUTOMATIC SPIRAL PUNCHING MACHINE
  70. HAND OPERATED AIR COMPRESSOR
  71. X-PLOTFORM
  72. HAND OPERATED HACKSAW
  73. SCREW CONVEYOR
  74. ABRASIVE GLASS CUTTING MACHINE
  75. PORTABLE TROLLEY FOR CARRYING HOUSE
    HOLD ITEMS
  76. COLOR IDENTIFICATION SORTING SYSTEM WITH CONVEYOR MODEL
  77. FABRICATION OF HOVERCRAFT MODEL
  78.  TURBO CHARGER CPM0266 THREE AXIS GRINDING MACHINE
  79.  TRIANGULAR AIR COMPRESSOR WITH COMMON COMPRESSION CHAMBER
  80. MAGNETIC IRON SEPERATOR
  81. MOTORISED COIN SEPERATOR
  82. WALL SLOTTING MACHINE
  83. FLUIDISED BED COMBUSTION
  84. TILTING VICE
  85. SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER
  86. COOLING TOWER
  87. BIODIESEL MANUFACTURING
  88. FRUITS GRADER
  89. AUTOMATIC PARCEL TRANSFER THROUGH CONVEYER SYSTEM
  90. PLANO DRILLER
  91. WORKING OF AIR COMPRESSOR WITH THE AID OF SPEED BREAKER
  92. CLIMBING WHEEL CHAIR
  93. AUTOMATIC MEDICAL SHOP TABLET AND SYRUB VENDOR
  94. WATER PUMPING SYSTEM USING RIVER FORCE
  95. AUTOMATIC TURMERIC BOILING PROCESS
  96. PAROTTA MAKING MACHINE
  97. SOLAR BASED AUTOMATIC BOARD CLEANER
  98. PEDAL DRESS WASHING MACHINE
  99. HAND OPERATED MIXIE WITH DOUBLE JAR
  100. HAND OPERATED MIXIE WITH SINGLE JAR
  101. GLASS CUTTING MODEL
  102. AUTOMATION ON SHOT BLASTING MACHINE
  103. HAND OPERATED BENDING MACHINE
  104. SINGLE DISC POLISHING MACHINE
  105. AUTOMATIC PVC CUTTING MACHINE
  106. AUTOMATIC MATERIAL HANDLING MACHINE
  107. AUTOMATIC INDEXING MACHINE
  108. FABRICATION OF AIR DRYER
  109. FABRICATION OF AIR COOLER CUM AIR HEATER
  110. COOLENT FILTERATION SYSTEM
  111. AUTOMATIC SPRAY PAINTING SYSTEM WITH CONVEYER
  112. BAR FEEDING MACHINE
  113. OBJECT COUNTER FOR CONVEYER
  114. MEDICINE DISPENSER CPM0229 MANUALY OPERATED PIPE BENDING MACHINE
  115. MANUAL PUNCHING MACHINE WITH INDEXING MACHINE
  116. MANUAL COIL WINDING MACHINE
  117. BRICK MAKING MACHINE
  118. AUTOMATIC MATCH STICK FILLING MACHINE
  119. PHOTO LAMINATION MACHINE
  120. AUTOMATIC COCONUT DE SHELLER
  121. AUTOMATIC IDLY MAKER
  122. AUTOMATIC VISITOR GUIDED WITH MATERIAL
    HANDLING VEHICLE

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